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ПОВОЛЖСКИЙ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ

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Популяционная устойчивость мелких млекопитающих. Почему это важно и от чего это зависит?

https://doi.org/10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-503-523

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Аннотация

Мелкие млекопитающие являются активным компонентом экосистем, которые поддерживают поток энергии и материи и которые отвечают как за строительство, так и за поддержание среды обитания. Такая деятельность жизненно важна для процветания человека, поскольку она поддерживает химическое и физическое качество среды, в которой человек приспособлен как биологический вид. Современная деятельность человека привела к разрушению ряда естественных мест обитания и, как следствие, к резким изменениям численности вида. Некоторые виды стали настолько многочисленными, что создают проблемы для здоровья человека, сельского хозяйства и промышленности. Некоторые ранее распространенные и даже вредные мелкие млекопитающие, напротив, сократились в распространении и численности и попали в категорию уязвимых видов. В обоих случаях экологически обоснованное управление популяциями необходимо для поддержания оптимальной численности видов. Эффективное экологически обоснованное управление популяциями может основываться на базовых принципах популяционной экологии. Это подразумевает понимание внешних и внутренних факторов, влияющих на численность населения. Здесь рассматриваются некоторые фундаментальные принципы, которые могут быть применены к оперативному управлению популяциями. Также автор останавливается на некоторых особенностях популяционных реакций, разработанных в российской экологической школе. Основываясь на хорошо известных принципах поддержки численности популяций, он предлагает классификацию видов с точки зрения их способности обеспечивать и изменять тип функции в локальных популяциях. Классификация позволяет выделить три группы видов с предсказуемой устойчивостью населения. Приспособленные к различной экологической нестабильности, виды этих групп требуют различной тактики сохранения.

Об авторе

Н. А. Щипанов
Институт проблем экологии и эволюции им. А. Н. Северцова РАН
Россия
117071, Москва, Ленинский просп., 33


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Для цитирования:


Щипанов Н.А. Популяционная устойчивость мелких млекопитающих. Почему это важно и от чего это зависит? ПОВОЛЖСКИЙ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ. 2019;(4):503-523. https://doi.org/10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-503-523

For citation:


Shchipanov N.A. Population Resilience of Small Mammals. Why it is Important and What it Depends On? Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology. 2019;(4):503-523. https://doi.org/10.35885/1684-7318-2019-4-503-523

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